Edited Volumes

Paxton, Pamela and Melanie Hughes, eds. 2018. “Gender and Politics.” Socius.

Paxton, Pamela and James Moody, eds. 2009. “Social Capital and Social Networks: Bridging Boundaries,” American Behavioral Scientist volume 52, issues 11 and 12


Journal Articles

Robyn Rap and Pamela Paxton. Forthcoming. “How Accurate are Self-Reports of Voluntary Association Memberships?” Sociological Methods and Research.

Weiss, Inbar, Pamela Paxton, Kristopher Velasco, and Robert Ressler. Forthcoming. “Revisiting Declines in Social Capital: Evidence from a New Measure” Social Indicators Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-018-1956-6

Hughes, Melanie, Pamela Paxton, Amanda Clayton, and Par Zetterberg. Forthcoming. “Global Gender Quota Adoption, Implementation, and Reform.” Comparative Politics.

Paxton, Pamela and Kristopher Velasco. Forthcoming. “Gender and Democratization.” in Democratization 2e, edited by Christian Haerpfer, Patrick Bernhagen, Christian Welzel, and Ronald Inglehart. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Velasco, Kristopher, Pamela Paxton, Robert Ressler, Inbar Weiss. Forthcoming. “Do National Service Programs Help Communities?” American Review of Public Administration

Hughes, Melanie, Pamela Paxton, Sharon Quinsaat, Nicholas Reith. 2018. “Does the Global North Still Dominate Women’s International Organizing? A Network Analysis from 1978 to 2008.” Mobilization 23:1-21.

Paxton, Pamela and Melanie Hughes. 2018. “Gender and Politics in the 2016 U.S. Election and Beyond” Socius 4. 2378023118763844.

Paxton, Pamela and Robert Ressler. 2018. “Trust and Participation in Associations.” in Oxford Handbook of Social and Political Trust. Oxford University Press.

Hughes, Melanie, Pamela Paxton, and Mona Lena Krook. 2017. “Gender Quotas for Legislatures and Corporate Boards.” Annual Review of Sociology 43:331-352

Hughes, Melanie and Pamela Paxton. 2018. “The Political Representation of Women over Time.” in The Global Handbook on Women’s Political Rights, edited by Mona Lena Krook, Susan Franceschet and Netina Tan. Palgrave.

Wang, Yi-Ting, Patrik Lindenfors, Fredrik Jansson, Aksel Sunstrom, Pamela Paxton, Staffan Lindberg. 2017. “Women’s Rights in Democratic Transitions: A Global Sequence Analysis 1900–2012” European Journal of Political Research 56:735-756.

Aksel Sundström; Pamela Paxton; Yi-ting Wang; Staffan I Lindberg. 2017. “Women's Political Empowerment: A New Global Index, 1900-2012.” World Development 94:321-335.

Paxton, Pamela and Robyn Rap. 2016. “Does the Standard Voluntary Association Question Capture Informal Associations?” Social Science Research 60:212-221.

Reith, Nicholas, Pamela Paxton, and Melanie Hughes. 2016. “Building Cross-National, Longitudinal Datasets: Issues and Strategies for Implementation.” International Journal of Sociology 46:21-41.

Glanville, Jennifer, Pamela Paxton, and Yan Wang. 2016. “Social Capital and Generosity: A Multilevel Analysis.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 45:526-547.

Hughes, Melanie M, Mona Lena Krook, and Pamela Paxton. 2015. “Transnational Women’s Activism and the Global Diffusion of Gender Quotas.” International Studies Quarterly 59:357-372.

Paxton, Pamela and Jennifer Glanville. 2015. “Is Trust Rigid or Malleable? A Laboratory Experiment.” Social Psychology Quarterly 78:194-204.

Paxton, Pamela and Melanie Hughes. 2015. “The Increasing Effectiveness of National Gender Quotas, 1990-2010.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 40:331-362.

Paxton, Pamela, Melanie Hughes, and Nicholas Reith. 2015. “Extending the INGO Network Country Score, 1950-2008.” Sociological Science 2:287-307.

Paxton, Pamela, Nicholas Reith, and Jennifer Glanville. 2014. “Volunteering and the Dimensions of Religiosity: A Cross-National Analysis.” Review of Religious Research 56:597-625.

Paxton, Pamela and Matthew Painter. 2014. “Checkbooks in the Heartland: Change Over Time in Voluntary Association Membership.” Sociological Forum 29:408-428.

Staffan I. Lindberg, Michael Coppedge, John Gerring, Jan Teorell, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Steven Fish, Alan Hicken, Matthew Kroenig, Kelly McMann, Pamela Paxton, Megan Reif, Svend-Erik Skaaning, and Jeffrey Staton . 2014. “V-Dem: A New Way to Measure Democracy.” Journal of Democracy 25:159-169.

Glanville, Jennifer A. L., Matthew Andersson, and Pamela Paxton. 2013. “Do Social Connections Create Trust? An Examination Using New Longitudinal Data.” Social Forces 92:545-562

Paxton, Pamela and Melanie M. Hughes. 2013. “Bringing Gender Back In.” States, Power and Societies 18:1-4.

Jacobs, David, Pamela Paxton, Aubrey L. Jackson, and Chad Malone. 2013. “Criminal Violence, Political Resources, and Women's Political Success.” Social Science Research 42:513-526.

Paxton, Pamela and Stephen Knack. 2012. “Individual and Country Level Factors Affecting Support for Foreign Aid.” International Political Science Review 33:150-170.

Coppedge, Michael and John Gerring, with David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Steven Fish, Allen Hicken, Matthew Kroenig, Staffan I. Lindberg, Kelly McMann, Pamela Paxton, Holli A. Semetko, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jeffrey Staton, and Jan Teorell. 2011. “Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy: A New Approach.” Perspectives on Politics 9: 247-267.

Neilsen, Lisa and Pamela Paxton. 2010. “Social Capital and Political Consumerism: A Multilevel Analysis.” Social Problems 57: 5-24.

Paxton, Pamela, Melanie Hughes, and Matthew Painter. 2010. “Growth in Women’s Political Representation: A Longitudinal Exploration of Democracy, Electoral System, and Gender Quotas.” European Journal of Political Research 49:25-52.

Paxton, Pamela and Melanie Hughes. 2010. “Women as Presidents, Prime Ministers, and Government Ministers.” pp. 321-330 in Gender and Women’s Leadership, edited by Karen O’Conner. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Paxton, Pamela and Melanie Hughes. 2010. “Women, Politics, and Globalization.” In Women Worldwide: Transnational Feminist Perspectives on Women, edited by Janet Lee and Susan Shaw. McGraw-Hill.

Hughes, Melanie, Lindsey Peterson, Jill Ann Harrison, and Pamela Paxton. 2009. “Power and Relation in the World Polity: The INGO Country Network Score, 1978-1998.” Social Forces 87:1711-42.

Moody, James and Pamela Paxton. 2009. “Building Bridges: Linking Social Capital and Social Networks to Improve Theory and Research” American Behavioral Scientist 52:1491-1506.

Paxton, Paxton and James Moody. 2009. “Continuing to Build Bridges: More on Linking Social Capital and Social Networks.” American Behavioral Scientist 52:1611-1612.

Paxton, Pamela. 2009. “Gender and Democratization.” Pp. 145-157 in Democratization, edited by Christian W. Haerpfer, Patrick Bernhagen, Ronald Inglehart, and Chris Welzel. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Paxton, Pamela, Matthew Painter and Melanie Hughes. 2009. “Year of the Woman, Decade of the Man: Trajectories of Growth in Women’s Statehouse Representation.” Social Science Research 38:86-102.

Hughes, Melanie and Pamela Paxton. 2008. “Continuous Change, Episodes, and Critical Periods: A Framework for Understanding Women's Political Representation Over Time.” Politics and Gender 4:233-264.

Paxton, Pamela. 2008. “Gendering Democracy.” Pp. 47-70 in Politics, Gender, and Concepts: Theory and Methodology, edited by Gary Goetz and Amy Mazur. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chen, Feinian, Patrick Curran, Ken Bollen, James Kirby and Pamela Paxton. 2008. “An Empirical Evaluation of the Use of Fixed Cutoff Points in the RMSEA Test Statistic in Structural Equation Models.” Sociological Methods and Research 36:462-494.

Paxton, Pamela and Jeremy Adam Smith. 2008. “America’s Trust Fall.” Greater Good 5:14-17

(Reprinted, Utne Reader 2009)

(Reprinted, forthcoming in The Compassionate Instinct, Norton)

Melanie Hughes and Pamela Paxton. 2007. “Traditional Theories from a New Perspective: The Implications of a Longitudinal Approach to Women in Politics Research.” Politics and Gender 3:370-378.

Glanville, Jennifer and Pamela Paxton. 2007. “How Do We Learn to Trust? A Confirmatory Tetrad Analysis of the Sources of Generalized Trust.” Social Psychology Quarterly 70:230-242.

Paxton, Pamela, Sheri Kunovich, and Melanie Hughes. 2007. “Gender in Politics.” Annual Review of Sociology 33:263-284.

Paxton, Pamela. 2007. “Association Memberships and Generalized Trust: A Multilevel Model Across 31 Countries.” Social Forces 86:47-76.

Ken Bollen, James Kirby, Patrick Curran, Pamela Paxton, and Feinian Chen. 2007. “Latent Variable Models Under Misspecification: Two Stage Least Squares (2SLS) and Maximum Likelihood (FIML) Estimators.” Sociological Methods and Research 36:48-86.

Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra and Pamela Paxton. 2007. “In Principle and in Practice: Learning Political Tolerance in Eastern and Western Europe.” Political Behavior 29:89-113.

Paxton, Pamela, Melanie Hughes and Jennifer Green. 2006. “The International Women's Movement and Women's Political Representation, 1893-2003.” American Sociological Review 71:898-920.

Paxton, Pamela and Anthony Mughan. 2006. “What’s to Fear from Immigrants? Creating an Assimilationist Threat Scale.” Political Psychology 27:549-568.

Mughan, Anthony and Pamela Paxton. 2006. “Anti-Immigrant Sentiment, Policy Preferences, and Populist Party Voting.” The British Journal of Political Science 36:341-358.

Paxton, Pamela. 2006. “Dollars and Sense: Convincing Students that Statistics is Important.” Teaching Sociology 34:65-70.

Kunovich, Sheri and Pamela Paxton. 2005. “Pathways to Power: the Role of Political Parties in Women’s National Political Representation.” The American Journal of Sociology 111:505-552.

Kenneth Bollen, Pamela Paxton, and Rumi Morishima. 2005. “Assessing International Evaluations: An Example from USAID’s Democracy and Governance Program.” The American Journal of Evaluation 26:189-203.

Paxton, Pamela. 2005. “Trust in Decline?” Contexts 4:40-46.

Paxton, Pamela and Sheri Kunovich. 2003. “Women’s Political Representation: The Importance of Ideology” Social Forces 82:87-114.

Paxton, Pamela and James Moody. 2003. “Structure and Sentiment: Explaining Attachment to Group.” Social Psychology Quarterly 66:34-47.

Paxton, Pamela and Kenneth A. Bollen. 2003. “Perceived Quality and Methodology in Graduate Department Ratings: The Case of Sociology, Political Science, and Economics.” Sociology of Education 76:71-88.

Curran, Patrick, Kenneth A. Bollen, Feinian Chen, Pamela Paxton, and Jim Kirby. 2003. “Finite Sampling Properties of the Point Estimates and Confidence Intervals of the RMSEA.” Sociological Methods and Research 32:208-252

Paxton, Pamela, Kenneth A. Bollen, Deborah M. Lee, and HyoJuong Kim. 2003. “A Half-Century of Suffrage: New Data and a Comparative Analysis.” Studies in Comparative International Development 38:93-122.

Paxton, Pamela. 2002. “Social Capital and Democracy: An Interdependent Relationship.” American Sociological Review 67:254-277.

Curran, Patrick J., Kenneth A. Bollen, Pamela Paxton, James Kirby and Feinian Chen. 2002. “The Noncentral Chi-square Distribution in Misspecified Structural Equation Models: Finite Sample Results from a Monte Carlo Simulation. Multivariate Behavioral Research 37:1-36.

Paxton, Pamela, Patrick Curran, Kenneth A. Bollen, James Kirby, and Feinian Chen. 2001. “Monte Carlo Experiments: Design and Implementation.” Structural Equation Modeling 8:287-312.

(Reprinted, forthcoming, in Correlation and Regression Analysis edited by W. Paul Vogt and R. Burke Johnson. Sage: SAGE Benchmarks in Social Research Methods.)

Chen, Feinian, Kenneth A. Bollen, Pamela Paxton, Patrick Curran, and James Kirby. 2001. “Improper Solutions in Structural Equation Models: Causes, Consequences, and Strategies.” Sociological Methods and Research 29:468-508.

Paxton, Pamela. 2000. “Women’s Suffrage in the Measurement of Democracy: Problems of Operationalization.” Studies in Comparative International Development 35:92-111.

Bollen, Kenneth A. and Pamela Paxton. 2000. “Subjective Measures of Liberal Democracy.” Comparative Political Studies 33:58-86.

Paxton, Pamela. 1999. “Is Social Capital Declining in the United States? A Multiple Indicator Assessment.” American Journal of Sociology 105:88-127.

Bollen, Kenneth A. and Pamela Paxton. 1998. “Detection and Determinants of Bias in Subjective Measures.” American Sociological Review 63:465-478.

(Reprinted, in Latent Variables and Factor Analysis, edited by Salvatore Babones. 2015. Sage Publications.)

Bollen, Kenneth A. and Pamela Paxton. 1998. “Interaction Effects with Latent Variables.” Structural Equation Modeling 5:267-293.

(Reprinted, pp. 125-151 in Interaction and Nonlinear Effects in Structual Equation Modeling, edited by Randall E. Schumacher and George A. Marcoulides. 1998. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum.)

Paxton, Pamela. 1997. “Women in National Legislatures: A Cross-National Analysis.” Social Science Research 26:442-464.

Bollen, Kenneth A. and Pamela Paxton. 1997. “Democracy before Athens.” in Democracy and Inequality, edited by Manus Midlarsky. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Paxton, Pamela. 1997. “Teaching Excellence: Helping Students Consider Academic Excellence.” Teaching Sociology 25:303-308.

Giuffre, Kathryn and Pamela Paxton. 1997. “Building Social Networks.” Teaching Sociology 25:207-213.


Technical Reports and Other Publications

Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Staffan I. Lindberg, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jan Teorell, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, M. Steven Fish, Agnes Cornell, Sirianne Dahlum, Haakon Gjerløw, Adam Glynn, Allen Hicken, Joshua Krusell, Anna Lührmann, Kyle L. Marquardt, Kelly McMann, Valeriya Mechkova, Juraj Medzihorsky, Moa Olin, Pamela Paxton, Daniel Pemstein, Josefine Pernes, Johannes von Römer, Brigitte Seim, Rachel Sigman, Jeffrey Staton, Natalia Stepanova, Aksel Sundström, Eitan Tzelgov, Yi-ting Wang, Tore Wig, Steven Wilson, and Daniel Ziblatt. 2018. "V-Dem [Country-Year/Country-Date] Dataset v8". Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project. https://doi.org/10.23696/vdemcy18

Hughes, Melanie M., Pamela Paxton, Sharon Quinsaat, and Nicholas Reith. 2017. “Women’s International Non-Governmental Organizations, 1950-2013.” [Computer file]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], http://doi.org/10.3886/E100514V1

Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Staffan I. Lindberg, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jan Teorell, with David Altman, Michael Bernhard, M. Steven Fish, Adam Glynn, Allen Hicken, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Kelly McMann, Pamela Paxton, Daniel Pemstein, Jeffrey Staton, Brigitte Zimmerman, Rachel Sigman, Frida Andersson, Valeriya Mechkova, and Farhad Miri. 2015. V-Dem Codebook v5. Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project.

Paxton, Pamela, Jennifer Green, and Melanie M. Hughes. 2008. Women in Parliament 1945-2003. Submitted to the ICPSR data depository, October 28th, 2008.

Paxton, Pamela. 2005. “Suffrage.” Governments of the World, edited by Neal Tate. MacMillan Reference.

Paxton, Pamela, Edward M. Crenshaw, Rumi Morishima, Kristopher K. Robison. 2004. The Globalization Comparative Panel Dataset. Submitted to the ICPSR data depository, December 7th, 2004.

Edward M. Crenshaw, Pamela Paxton, Kristopher K. Robison, Rumi Morishima. 2004. The Westernization Comparative Panel Dataset. Submitted to the ICPSR data depository, December 7th, 2004.

Bollen, Kenneth A., Pamela Paxton, and Rumi Morishima. 2003. Review of USAID Evaluations on Democracy and Governance. U.S. Agency for International Development.

Bollen, Kenneth A., Pamela Paxton, and Rumi Morishima. 2003. Research Design to Evaluate the Impact of USAID Democratic Governance Programs. U.S. Agency for International Development.

Paxton, Pamela. 2003. “Simultaneous Equations.” Encyclopedia of Research Methods for the Social Sciences, edited by Michael Lewis-Beck, Alan Bryman, and Tim Futing Liao. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Paxton, Pamela. 2003. “Nonrecursive Systems of Equations.” Encyclopedia of Research Methods for the Social Sciences, edited by Michael Lewis-Beck, Alan Bryman, and Tim Futing Liao. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Paxton, Pamela. 2003. “Recursive Systems of Equations.” Encyclopedia of Research Methods for the Social Sciences, edited by Michael Lewis-Beck, Alan Bryman, and Tim Futing Liao. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.